Ecuador's Socialist-leaning government of President Lenin Moreno has asked the United States to impose import restrictions not only on the usual list of pre-Colombian, Colonial and Republican era archaeological and ethnological objects, but also on "Colonial and republican period coins; medallions more than 50 years old...manuscripts more than 50 years old; and certain works by modern artists.” Public summary at 1. See https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/ecuadorrequest2018_publicsummary_04.05.2018.pdf (last visited April 9, 2018.) Imposing import restrictions on these categories of cultural artifacts would be yet another example of "culture creep" that has steadily expanded the list of what types of collectibles are effectively embargoed from entry into the United States.
Of course, none of these objects neatly fit within the definitions of "archaeological" or "ethnological"objects that forms the threshold for them to be subject to import restrictions under the Cultural Property Implementation Act. However, the Cultural Property Advisory Committee and State Department Cultural Heritage Center, which these days are both dominated by the anti-private collecting views of the Archaeological Institute of America and other archaeological advocacy groups, have pushed the envelope before and may do so again here.
If so, collecting old coins, medallions, manuscripts and modern art from Latin America may very well be at risk.
If you are interested in these collecting areas, please comment. You still have until April 15th to post your views here. While we can't be sure your comments will really matter, we should all be concerned that government decision makers will consider silence as acquiescence.
Comments are to touch on the following four determinations: (1) that the cultural patrimony of Ecuador is in jeopardy; (2) that the requesting nation has taken measures to protect its cultural patrimony; (3) that U.S. import restrictions, either alone or in concert with actions taken by other nations, would be of substantial benefit in deterring a serious situation of pillage; and (4) import restrictions would promote the interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural and educational purposes.
For Ecuadorian coins, manuscripts and modern art, determinations 3-4 come into play. Why should the U.S. Government place restrictions on American collectors given internal markets for these items within Ecuador itself and the fact that other countries have not imposed similar restrictions on the ability of their own citizens to trade in such objects? Under the circumstances, restrictions will only hurt the ability of Americans to learn about Ecuadorian culture.
The key issue, however, remains that such coins, medallions, manuscripts and modern art the Ecuadorian government seeks to restrict do not easily fall within the statutory definitions for archaeological or ethnological objects. Moreover, Ecuadorian coins, like their Spanish and Spanish Colonial counterparts, circulated world wide, first as items of trade and then as collectibles. Indeed, such coins were legal tender in the United States until 1857.
Tuesday, April 10, 2018
Thursday, April 5, 2018
The US Cultural Property Advisory Committee is soliciting comments concerning the proposed renewal of import restrictions on cultural goods, including coins, down to the end of the Tang Dynasty. The time to comment is exceptionally short, ending on April 15, 2018.
This renewal should be of particular interest to collectors who specialize in Chinese coins.
Comments are to touch on the following four determinations: (1) that the cultural patrimony of the requesting nation is in jeopardy from the pillage of archaeological materials; (2) that the requesting nation has taken measures to protect its cultural patrimony; (3) that U.S. import restrictions, either alone or in concert with actions taken by other market nations, would be of substantial benefit in deterring the serious situation of pillage, and (4) import restrictions would promote the interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural, and educational purposes.
For Chinese coins, the key points relates to determinations 2-4: Why should the US Government place restrictions on American collectors given the huge internal market in ancient Chinese coins within China itself, particularly when China and other countries have not imposed similar restrictions on the ability of their own citizens to deal and trade in such coins? Under the circumstances, continued restrictions will only diminish the ability of Americans to learn about and appreciate Chinese culture from "hands-on" experience with Chinese coins without any impact on the huge trade in Chinese coins abroad. Other issues are that Chinese cash coins circulated widely outside China, including E. Africa, Japan, Indonesia, etc. and that it is difficult for all but experts to tell "restricted" Tang Dynasty and earlier cash coins from later "unrestricted" ones.
Finally, there is a question of reciprocity. U.S. collectors have had to deal with a veritable avalanche of fake U.S. collectors' coins produced in China. If China is going to do nothing about it, why should the U.S. "help China" secure its "cultural heritage?"
To comment on the renewal, use the regulations.gov portal here: https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=DOS_FRDOC_0001-4477 and click on the “comment now” button. Note you are commenting on the China MOU renewal as CPAC is also accepting comments regarding another proposed MOU with Ecuador.
The Department of State requests that any party soliciting or aggregating comments received from other persons for submission to the Department of State inform those persons that the Department of State will not edit their comments to remove any identifying or contact information, and that they therefore should not include any information in their comments that they do not want publicly disclosed.